Enter your email address:

Delivered by FeedBurner

First blog from iPod touch


Recently I bought an Apple iPod touch. I have been amazed at it's performance and it's utility as a productivity tool.

I am planning to publish serious of blogs explaining the benefits and in general my experience with it.

- Posted using BlogPress from my iPhone

Kodak Brand Exploratory Report

This report is part 2 of the 3 part Kodak Brand Exploration series. If you have missed the first report please look at my previous blog.  Based on this analysis one should gain experience in qualitative methodology by conducting an in-depth interview.  Second, you will gain experience in working with the fieldnote/recorded data to write a descriptive report.  

Following are the guidelines for this report.

  • Understand the nature of a comprehensive brand audit in terms of the brand exploratory component
  • Gain experience in the qualitative research methodology of in-depth interviewing
  • To learn how to use question probing to gain a detailed perspective of a consumer
  • To begin to see links between qualitative data and marketing strategy
  • To understand the early stages of the marketing research process in which a researcher must immerse him/herself in the client’s world to gain insight for problem definition.

Background Reading:

“Brand Audit Guidelines” in Strategic Brand Management, Kevin L. Keller, 2003, Prentice-Hall, pp. 162-172. 

Brand Exploratory:  Qualitative Research Requirements

In qualitative research, it is very important for a researcher to gain trust and general rapport with his/her respondent.  In the interest of completing this assignment in a timely fashion, a suggested methodology is for you to enlist a friend or loved one (i.e., your spouse) with which you have this type of trust relationship to be your respondent.

Plan to interview the respondent using open-ended questions (see Major Areas for Questioning section below).  The responses to one question may lead you to ask other related questions (not included here).  Use the questions here as a starting point and expect to ask other questions (probing questions) yourself as the interview proceeds.  Again, there is no strict format for this interview (as is often the case in qualitative research!).  You may not ask all of these questions; don’t try to if it feels awkward or inappropriate.  Try to ask some questions about each of the major topic areas.

Step 1:  Talk to your respondent for 5-10 minutes in order to pre-screen him/her.  The respondent should be an owner and/or user of a digital camera and be familiar with the technology at a minimal level.   

Step 2:  Conduct the interview at a later time (i.e., next day).  You should plan to spend at least 1 hour talking to your respondent.  

Now the report follows here...


As part of our Kodak brand audit report, we are performing a brand exploratory step to identify the reach of Kodak brand among customers. This is done by qualitatively measures by conducting an in-depth interview with a customer to understand his views and his perception of Kodak brand. This report will summarize the research experience, respondent details, interview environment and responses. Also it will take a giant leap and try to associate these findings with the Kodak marketing strategy decisions.

Note of caution

This report considers only 1 individual’s opinion; hence no major conclusions should be made using this report.

Respondent description

I interviewed a 32 year old Asian male who is married with no kids. He is working for an insurance firm as a software engineer. He owns a digital camera and a cell phone camera. He owns a color printer but prints all his photos from a professional printing shop.

Interview process

Interview was done in 2 steps.

Step 1: Requested the respondent on his opinion to participate in a 30 minute survey

Step 2: Completed the interview

Interview environment

Date: 2nd March 2007

Time: 11:30 AM

Location: Office department lounge, Duration: 20 Minutes

Interview Techniques

Following are the techniques used in our interview.

  • Association Techniques

Consumers see a stimulus and are asked to respond with the first thing that comes to their mind.  E.g. Respond to this statement:  “In the past, it was a double print world”

  • Construction Techniques

This requires the respondents to construct a response in the form of a story, dialogue or description in a less structured form than a completion technique

E.g. Picture response technique: Respondents are asked to tell stories of the pictures shown (Kodak Picture with 3 Printers)

  • Laddering Method

Laddering methods are a useful way to elicit the higher order benefits and values offered by the brand beyond immediate product, user or user related attributes.

  • Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Techniques

Perform a one-to-one interview as a guided conversation using story telling, construct elicitation, Identify the key themes or constructs, code the data, and assemble a consensus map involving the most important constructs

A look at the response

Most fascinating thing about this interview is, it is my first real interviewing of a person for research. Even though I was excited, I contained my excitement and followed the questions in a structured order. I took couple of minutes to break the ice and then explained the intention of this interview to the respondent. I started with the brand association questions, following are my findings from the respondent’s answers (See Exhibit A for the answer sheet)

  • My respondent is a loyal Sony consumer
  • “Never looked a camera as innovative”
  • “Never needed lots of features in a camera”
  • Considered Low end models of Sony with less mega pixel camera as Cheap
  • “Never browsed for professional cameras”
  • Considered SLR cameras are difficult to use
  • Never mentioned any other brand except Sony and Pentax.

A look at the response – Major Areas of Questioning

  • He has used 2 digital cameras (1 Pentax digital camera – 4 years old, 1 cell phone camera)
  • I am an Amateur; I Point & Shoot with my Digital Camera” –  This comment pretty much summed the nature of the respondent
  • Another aspect I observed from the interview is that the respondent feels intimidated with too many features in a camera
  • He doesn’t like having a camera on a cell phone in spite of owning a cell phone camera.
  • He likes to print out pictures most often, but doesn’t use his own color printer as he feels that the professional printing shop does job than him.
  • He shares his photos on Orkut – Networking website
  • His wife maintains photo journals

For more details on the responses please see Exhibit B.

A look at the response – Kodak Printers

  • Never heard of Kodak printers
  • Would prefer a lower end model (149.99) as he doesn’t like complex features in a printer
  • Happy with optimum resolution provided by a lower end model
  • Price of printers doesn’t matter
  • Low cost of print ink does attract him to consider this line of printer


Does the above response impact Kodak Marketing Strategy

One key observation is that the cost of print ink does attract him to buy the printer

Price of printers is not considered expensive for this respondent. With this preliminary data, it looks like Kodak might have a winning product in hand. Further conclusions will be made based on our future research.


Brand Association Questions: (Exhibit A)

Next, I’m interested in the brands of digital cameras that you associate with various characteristics.  For each characteristic, tell me which digital camera brand comes to mind.  If no brand comes to mind for a characteristic, please tell me. 











Never looked a camera as innovative

Good value for the money



Good for taking sports/action photos






Lots of features


Never needed lots of features in a camera



Low end models of Sony

Less mega pixel cameras

Good for taking family photos





Sony new models




High tech



For professionals


Never looked at one



Old SLR cameras



Sony is the best





Major Areas for Questioning: ( Exhibit B)

What brand of digital camera do you own and/or use?

Pentax digital camera / 2 Megapixel (Bought before 5 Years)

Topic 1:  Memory Management

How do you take photographs?

I am an Amateur; I Point & Shoot with my Digital Camera

How are you using your digital camera?

I use it to take pictures in family gatherings

How do you manage the images captured on a digital camera?  What happens after you take a picture?

I store it in my computer. I take selected pictures to the professionals (Ritz Camera) in a mall and get it printed.

Respond to this statement:  “In the past, it was a double print world”

I am always a single copy guy

How has picture taking and picture using changed?  For example, what happens after you take a picture with your digital camera?

It used to be “Camera in Control of picture output” now the “User is in Control of picture output”

Also digital cameras have reduced the waiting time from taking a photo, developing and viewing

What makes you print pictures?

To preserve memories

What prevents you from printing pictures?

I don’t like printing pictures which are not worth looking again. 

Topic 2:  Picture Utilization

How do you view pictures?

Albums, Computer slideshows

How do you share pictures?

Email, Orkut (Networking Website), Physical albums

How do you use images to keep track of memories?

My Wife creates storyboards and arranges pictures accordingly

Are you using pictures in the same way compared to 5 years ago?  How?

Yes, hasn’t changed me a lot. Only difference is I can delete my unwanted pictures

Are you using pictures in different ways compared to 5 years ago?  How?


How do you want to share stories via images?

I don’t, but my wife does

Do you view or share pictures online using Facebook or MySpace or other similar internet sites?  If yes, how?  Why? Yes, Orkut, Once in a while

If no, why not?

Topic 3:  Cameras in Cell Phones

Do you use your cell phone to take pictures?   No, But I own a cell-phone camera

If so, how often?  Very rarely

What type of pictures do you take with a camera phone versus a digital camera? Not Applicable

On what occasions, usually?

If so, how is this picture taking similar to or different from that with your digital camera?  Not Applicable

What happens after you take a picture with your cell phone? Not Applicable

Is your choice of cell phone influenced by the camera capability/features for the phone? No

Do you think there will ever be a time in which camera phones replace "traditional" digital cameras? Never

How much would current camera capability in mobile phones need to improve before the camera phone was the primary picture taking device? I am a 2 hand guy; I don’t prefer taking pictures in 1 hand

Topic 4:  Photo Printing and Potential Acceptance of Inkjet Printer

When you do want prints of digital photographs, how do you get them?  Do yo go to a photo processing center (retail store) or print your own?  Photo Processing Center

If you print your own, what brand of inkjet color printer do you own?  I don’t print my pictures, but I do own a color printer.

How often do you print your own photos? Never

What prevents you from printing images using your own color printer?

    • Cost
    • Time
    • Ability to order from home and pick-up at retail locations (Wal-Mart, Walgreens)

I believe professionals do a much job than me.

Kodak’s newest product offering is an inkjet printer line “All-in-One Printers” that allow for high quality documents and photos at lower prices compared to the traditional inkjet technology.

    • Kodak EasyShare All in One Printers ($149.99 - $299.99, three models)
    • Print cartridges (B&W $9.99, Color $14.99)


If you were able to buy ink cartridges for less, would you print more of your digital photos yourself?  Why or why not?

 No, prefer a Professional Printing Center

Following are the observation when the customer was showed a paper with different Kodak printers.

  1. Would prefer a lower end model (149.99) as he doesn’t like complex in a printer
  2. Happy with optimum resolution provided by a lower end model
  3. Price doesn’t matter
  4. Cost of print ink doest attract him to consider this line of printer

Kodak Brand Audit Presentation

Labels: ,

Attached here is the presentation for the kodak brand audit project.

Kodak Brand Audit Report
View SlideShare presentation or Upload your own.

Kodak Brand Audit Report

Labels: ,

Kodak Brand Audit Requirement

This research is being performed to dig deep in to consumer insights and get important answers to the following questions. This would determine if the assumptions about certain products are true and if so,  what are the chances that a customer would prefer Kodak's product over the competitors.

Critical Questions

Today, more and more multi-function devices are becoming available. More functionality is being added to the mobile phone, and it is    difficult to find a new mobile phone without some capability to take a picture.

How many consumers have their choice of phone influenced by the camera capability/features for the phone?

How many consumers regularly use the camera feature on their phone?

Are there different image management/handling requirements for digital cameras and mobile phones?

What type of pictures do consumers take with camera phones versus   digital cameras?

Do consumer envision a time in which camera phones replace "traditional" digital cameras?

How much would current camera capability in mobile phones need to improve before the camera phone was the primary picture taking device?

How important is the ability to capture video as a feature in a digital camera (or mobile phone)?

Kodak just announced its entry into the inkjet printer market.  Are there other product categories where the Kodak brand might be leveraged for entry into a new market space?

Purpose of this project is to gain direct exposure to analysis of a brand using secondary data in completing a brand inventory.  

Learning Objectives

  • Understand the nature of a comprehensive brand audit
  • Gain experience with secondary data sources
  • Use secondary data to demonstrate knowledge and understanding about a focal brand by completing a brand inventory
  • Use secondary data (as available) to learn customer/marketplace perceptions about the focal brand
  • To understand the early stages of the marketing research process in which a researcher must immerse him/herself in the client’s world to gain insight for problem definition.
Explore Kodak with regard to the digital camera/printer products and market.  In order to assess competition in this market, conduct the same exploration for a competitor brand.

Background Reading:

Brand Audit Guidelines” in Strategic Brand Management, Kevin L. Keller, 2003, Prentice-Hall, pp. 162-172. 

Brand Inventory

Using secondary data (news articles, annual reports, etc.) develop a current profile of how Kodak digital cameras are marketed and branded.   In other words, how is this brand promoted?  How are Kodak digital cameras represented in the marketplace?  In addition to cameras, explore the new Easy Share printer system.  To get started, look in the Investor Relations (Corporate) section of the Kodak website and scan news releases.  Additional information and links are in the Innovations section in this area of the website.

The outcome of the brand inventory should be an accurate, comprehensive, and timely profile of how Kodak digital cameras (and printers) and the assigned competitor are branded.  This includes marketing communication and other supporting marketing programs” (see Keller, p. 163).

Profiling one or several competing brands may be helpful in this exercise to illustrate similarities and differences across the brands

Brand Inventory Report - Introduction

Kodak is a multi dimensional provider of products and services to the photographic, graphic communications and healthcare markets. Consumers use Kodak’s system of digital and traditional capture products and services to take print, store and share their pictures anytime, anywhere. This report takes a deep dive in to the brand auditing of Kodak brand. We will look at the brand inventory of Kodak digital cameras and printers. We will also stack up Kodak products against a competitor to understand the brand portfolio positioning grid.

Brand Audit

Brand audit is the process where companies estimate their brand awareness among the customers; estimate the current valuation of the brand and the proposition of the brand.

The purpose of the brand inventory is to provide the current profile of how all the products and services sold by the company are marketed and branded. Scope of this report would be restricted to Kodak digital cameras and printers.

Kodak Cameras

Kodak Cameras are very widely used. Their easyshare series of cameras are very popular among customers. One of the important attribute of Kodak cameras are the affordable price points. If you look at the below illustration, a 10.0 Megapixel camera is priced at 249.05, which is considered a very low price.




Kodak has a wide variety of cameras. They are classified as follows

  1. Point and shoot
  2. High Zoom
  3. Pocket
  4. Performance
  5. Easy-Share One

In 2004 Kodak had a market-share of 20.1%. Due to increased competition they have dropped considerably. IDC has predicted by 2009 worldwide digital camera sales would slow down. Kodak cameras have many features which many companies didn’t offer. For example their pictbridge printing technology is so powerful that their products where selling just for the pictbridge feature.

Kodak Printers

Printer business has been very lucrative with a huge opportunity for growth. Kodak has been a late entrant in this market, but they have arrived with a solid concept of saving 50% of price on ink. This is a huge revolution in the printer market as it breaks the conventional wisdom. As per the norms printer companies make money of printer accessories instead of the actual printer. But Kodak with its revolutionary design and development knowledge, they have come out with a printer which can guarantee a life time quality of picture. Price of ink is so low that it beats the market by 50%. Only downside is price of printer is high comparing the competitor prices.

Kodak EasyShare 5100

Marketing efforts has been a great success for Kodak. All major syndications carried the news of the release of revolutionary printers.

Kodak Cameras Vs HP Cameras

HP entered digital camera market in 1998. They have released consistent models, but haven’t been able to make a dent in the Kodak marketshare.  Please see appendix for information relating to the difference in the current models of Kodak and HP cameras.

Kodak Printers Vs HP Printers

Kodak has 3 new lines of All-In-One printers. HP has only one printer Deskjet F380 which can be compared in this range. Following is the comparison of the performance between a Kodak and HP printer.



Kodak Marketing Efforts

Kodak has aggressively started marking of their new revolutionary printers. They have used the word “think” to infer this product is all about saving the cost on ink.

Kodak in the News

KODAK: Kodak Revolutionizes the Inkjet Industry New Line of All-In-One Inkjet Printers Produces Durable, High-Quality Documents and Photos; Low-cost premium inks save customers up to 50 percent on everything they print,  M2 Presswire, February 6, 2007

Kodak Wins Three CES Innovations Awards and Receives Prestigious Honors from Popular Science and PC Magazine;  Honors Include "Best of Innovations" Award for the KODAK EASYSHARE V610 Dual Lens Digital Camera,  Business Wire, January 8,2007


This article has taken an effort to collect the current profile of Kodak. It assessed the profile against HP to compare the various specifications of HP and Kodak. This information should be used for brand exploratory and further study.